Pertaining to Gravitational Strain & Cell Metabolism:

>Sungchul Ji <> Oct 30 at 4:11 PM

Gravitational biology (GB) is interesting.  Never heard of it before reading your paper.  What you claim in your paper seems reasonable and well supported by data. If your hypothesis about the role of "gravity-induced strain cycle" in biology is right, we may have to conclude that the biosphere is driven not only by the electromagnetic wave (as widely thought) but also by the gravitational wave, which would be consistent with my conclusions (i) that the wave-particle duality applies throughout the Universe and (ii) that all self-organizing processes, from chemical reactions to living processes to the structuring of the Universe, may be driven by the organizing power of waves (as illustrated by the Chladni plate [1]), involving all kinds of waves including the electromagnetic, mechanical, chemical concentration, gravitational [2, 3, 4], and as-yet-undiscovered waves (e.g., biophotons) [5]. With all the best. Sung

   [1] Amazing Resonance Experiment !   
   [2] Ji, S. (2016). WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY IN PHYSICS AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES.  Symmetry: Science and Culture 27 (2): 99-127 (2016).
  [3] Ji, S. (2015). Planckian distributions in molecular machines, living cells, and brains: The wave-particle duality in biomedical sciences.  In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Vienna, March 15-17, 2015. Pp. 115-137.
  [4] Ji, S. (2015). PLANCKIAN INFORMATION (IP): A NEW MEASURE OF ORDER IN ATOMS, ENZYMES, CELLS, BRAINS, HUMAN SOCIETIES, AND THE COSMOS.  In: Unified Field Mechanics: Natural Science beyond the Veil of Spacetime (Amoroso, R., Rowlands, P., and Kauffman, L. eds.), World Scientific, New Jersey, 2015, pp. 579-589)
   [5]  Curtis, B. and Hurtak, J. J. (2004).  Consciousness and Quantum Information Processing:Uncovering the Foundation for a Medicine of Light. THE JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE 10 (1): 27-39.


Sungchul Ji <> Oct 30 at 6:26 PM

You may be interested in knowing that "gravitational strain" may have counter parts in biology in the form of what is variously referred to as "frustrations" [1, 2] or "conformons" [3, 4].  The concept of frustrations was imported from solid-state physics into biology by P. W. Anderson in 1983 [5] in connection with the mechanism of the origin of life later called the Princetonator [6]. As you can see in [1] and [2], the concept of frustrations can account for protein folding and functions as can the conformon [3, 4].  Hence we can conclude that frustrations and conformons are two different names for the same entity in biology.  If "gravitational strains" like "conformational strains" (i.e., conformons) are shown to play basic biological role, e.g., in circadian rhythm, as you are postulating, the concept of "strains" may have a universal role in biology, no matter how they are produced, mechanically, electromagnetically, or gravitationally.  If this turns out to be the case, then we will have to add a new member to the list of conformons given in Table 4 in [4], namely, the "Thorne" conformon, possibly responsible for the circadian rhythm and other periodic properties of organisms.  Such strains (numbering in the billions and trillions, perhaps) must be encoded in DNA sequences, and there are enough degrees of freedom in the genetic code that such encoding would be possible.  Just as the electron has the static (mass, charge, spin size) and dynamic properties (position, momentum, spin direction), so perhaps DNA also has it sstatic (i.e., nucleotide sequences) and dynamic properties (i.e., conformational and gravitational strains, also called frustrations). With all the best. Sung

   [1] Diego U., Ferreiro, D.U., Komives, E. A., and Wolynes, P. G. (2014). Frustration in Biomolecules. Q Rev Biophys. 47(4):285–363. 21/pdf/nihms642270.pdf
   [2] Diego U., Ferreiro, D.U., Komives, E. A., and Wolynes, P. G. (2017  Frustration, function and folding. arXiv:1710.02436v1 [q-bio.BM] 6 Oct 2017
   [3] Ji, S. (1991).  Conformons and Molecular Machines.  In:  S. Ji, ed. (1991). Molecular Theories of Cell Life and Death. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick. Pp. 31-43.  Attached.
   [4] Ji, S. (2000). Free energy and informatin contents of Conformons in proteins and DNA.  BioSysrtems 54: 107-130.  http://www.conformon .net/wp-content/uploads/2012/0 5/FREENERG.pdf
   [5] Anderson, P. W. (1983). Suggested Model for Prebiotic Evoluiton: the Use of Chaos.  Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S. 80: 3386-3390.
   [6] Ji,S. (1991).  The Conformon-Based Model of the Origin of Life -- the Princetonator.  Appendix 1.C  in:  S. Ji, ed. (1991). Molecular Theories of Cell Life and Death. Rutgers