# Diversions in Pure Theoretical Physics

If cancer can sometimes result from a single mutation in a base pair along the DNA data set that contains over 3 billion base pairs, within a single cell that is just one of roughly 30 trillion cells in the body, then we need to have a physics built from terms that are true to at least one part in 10^22. Neither Newtonian physics, nor special and general relativity, nor quantum mechanics are true to that level of certainty. In fact, that is about where they begin to break down. This is not surprising since most of our definitions evolved from a very practical need to truncate the fine-scale data associated with non-linear activity - data that is otherwise too difficult to manage. If our organisms evolved within a physics environment that was fundamentally true - or, at least true to the order of the Planck Scale - then it is worth exploring conjecture about ways we might extend our current definitions into the mathematically more complicated, non-linear, and self-organizing domain of the cell.

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• ## P-I: Pythagoras in the Real World?

The Pythagorean theorem tells us how we should define the distance between the free endpoints of two line segments that are joined to form a right angle. It has served as the basis for differential geometry and the launching point for defining space-time curvature in modern gravitational theories. We are not going to second guess the use of the Pythagorean theorem as it applies to idealized geometries built from points and lines - but we are going to inquire whether the theorem is valid to apply to discrete systems. Might we view the Pythagorean theorem as valid only in the limit where [dx~0]? (Posted: 2.10.17)  • ## P-II: Modified Definitions of Curvature and Acceleration in a Discrete Medium?

Rotation is a property we associate with movement along an arc. However, curvilinear motion is a deduction we make by observing the position of a system over two or more intervals. In complex systems comprised of identical particles, we sometimes make the assumption that the motion of each particle follows curved trajectories because that is the simplest way to describe the change in the state of the system. But such motion is not necessarily fundamental to the system. When there is an underlying finite gauge to intervals, terms that would normally be eliminated due their extreme smallness, become important to retain.

The equations for kinetic energy and for angular momentum of gauged orbital motion are referenced to the idealized path of point particles traveling along infinitesimal arcs. Since objects in a discrete medium rarely travel along paths where the free path between collisions is infinitesimal, it makes more sense to reference local motion to the average gauge of the medium. When so referenced, there is a chord potential U(l) that emerges that provides an energy incentive for 'rotational' motion that is non-Newtonian in nature. (Posted: 2.10.17)   • ## P-III: Observations Regarding the Kelvin Temperature Scale?

In the mid-nineteenth century, the Kelvin temperature scale was invented; it was defined as the absolute temperature scale. Can it be justified that - at a time prior to the discovery of the nucleus, prior to relativity, prior to quantum mechanics, and prior to discovering nuclear forces - that the knowledge scientist obtained by observing changes in water over a range of a few-hundred degrees was sufficiently fundamental to apply to the energy changes in stars that range of millions of degrees and more generally to the universe as a whole? (Posted: 2.10.17)  • ## P-IV: Discordant Tidal Characteristics Between the Lithosphere and the Asthenosphere as a Possible Generator of Plate-Driving Forces?  • ## P-VII: Quantum Origins and the X-Y Axis? 